type 2 diabetes causes symptoms treatments

Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments

Type-2 Diabetes is a common condition. The Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health’s study on type-2 diabetes trends reported that around 462 million of the global population have the condition. And by 2030, this number will only increase with the projection that 7079 of every 100,000 people around the world will be diagnosed with Type-2 Diabetes.

Those who are diagnosed with type-2 diabetes have insulin-resistant cells or bodies that use insulin inefficiently. In both situations, glucose gets concentrated in your blood and your cells don’t have sugar for energy. This then results in different symptoms like fatigue and fainting. To learn more about type-2 diabetes, keep reading about its causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatments.

Type 2 Diabetes Causes

The factors that can bring about type-2 diabetes in an individual can be divided into two. On the one hand, it could be a case of genetics. Certain genes that make you (your cells) resistant to insulin predispose you to the disease.

This is more so the case if someone in your family has diabetes. If you have a family member that is diagnosed with Type-2 diabetes, you likely develop it as well as studied in Endocrine and Metabolic Science’s research on diabetes family history.

In the study, children from a family with diabetic members who are not overweight were found to have high fasting insulin levels that signify a risk of diabetes. This is because such high levels indicate insulin resistance in the body.

Another factor points to lifestyle quality. Temple Health’s article on diabetes and obesity explains that those who are obese, overweight, and inactive are at high risk for Type-2 diabetes. This is because having more weight than what is healthy develops insulin resistance in your body.

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Symptoms experienced by type-2 diabetics are often due to the dysregulation of glucose in the body. For instance, excessive thirst, urination, and dry mouth are due to the kidney having to filter out excess sugar in your bloodstream.

This process can be dehydrating since your kidneys remove excess sugar alongside fluids from your tissues. Excreting excess glucose through your kidneys can even cause you to lose weight, as you’re losing calories that were meant to fuel your cells.

Additionally, because of diabetes, you also feel more hungry and tired because your body is not able to efficiently store and distribute energy to its cells. Other symptoms like poor eyesight, head pain, fainting, and slow healing are also caused by the imbalance of glucose in your body.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

Blood tests are conducted to diagnose Type-2 diabetes. These four main tests check how your blood handles sugar by extracting blood in various conditions. Fasting plasma glucose test, as the name suggests, assesses how high your blood sugar levels are after fasting–during which they should be low.

There’s the oral glucose tolerance testing which checks your blood glucose levels after drinking something sweet to see how your body manages sugar. The other tests are the three-month-long glycated hemoglobin testing (A1c) and the no-fasting random plasma glucose test.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatments

Even though there’s no cure, there are ways to treat and manage your condition. Diabetics are advised to adopt a healthier lifestyle. Start by shifting into a more balanced diet consisting of fibre, protein, and whole grains and less simple sugars and processed foods.

Add more movement into your everyday life with regular exercises like walking. WeightWatchers’ post on walking 10,000 steps a day notes how it can help stabilise your blood sugar. 10,000 steps of walking are worth five days of doing a 30-minute workout routine. And this rigorous physical activity gets your heart pumping, using up more sugar to fuel your muscles.

Medication is also prescribed to facilitate treatment. Metformin is for helping the liver manage its glucose release. On the other hand, insulin is prescribed in different forms– via injection, inhaler or pump–to regulate your glucose levels.

As a long-term condition, dealing with diabetes can be challenging. However, knowing how type-2 diabetes affects your body as well as how to deal with it can help you manage your condition and achieve a good quality of life.

If you’re interested in how diabetes causes lethargy or what other causes may be behind it, read our article ‘Fatigue’. Stay healthy and happy.


  1. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 20th edition
  2. Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine,23rd Edition
  3. Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health’s study on type-2 diabetes
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